By the end of this learning package you will:
In Europe today, the medical model dominates mental health service delivery. A Recovery and Social Inclusion approach can be in conflict with the medical model. This is because they originate from different philosophical positions.
One area of potential conflict is the area of what are referred to as “hallucinations” and “delusions”.
The medical model would consider these symptoms of illness, a Recovery and Social Inclusion approach may accept these as normal human experiences. Because the medical model dominates European thinking in mental health care, this learning package will deliberately take a position critical of the medical model and support a Recovery and Social Inclusion approach.
Before you begin this topic, think about the following question:
Now consider whether your beliefs are informed by medial science or psychosocial theories.
When you think about the Medical Model, what does this bring to mind for you? How would you define the Medical Model in Mental Health? Read this short article that debates the merits of the Medical Model in Mental Health.
How would you summarize this article? What do you agree with? What do you disagree with?
Now write your answers to the following questions:
In 2014, the British Psychological Society published a report called “Understanding psychosis and schizophrenia”. This document is very helpful to the Recovery and Social Inclusion approach to understanding psychosis and schizophrenia. It outlines the current thinking and developments in this area and argues that psychosis can be addressed in psychosocial and non-medical ways. You can download the report here.
There are a number of books specifically about hearing voices. For a list visit the Intervoice Associates store
A Recovery and Social Inclusion approach will also challenge the idea that paranoia is an illness. In this Youtube video, Peter Bullimore tells his story of hearing voices and paranoia. You will find parallels with Eleanor’s story.
One proponent of the Recovery approach in the UK is Rufus May.
Go to his website for information. He made a film called “The Doctor Who Hears Voices”. His approach is controversial. Watch this hour-long film and consider the questions below.
Questions regarding: “The Doctor Who Hears Voices”
Return to narrative of JOHN:
Whilst the medical model dominates mental health service provision, there are multiple explanations for hallucinations and hearing voices. Whilst the medical model considers hallucinations as symptoms of mental illness, they may also be considered as a normal response to intense trauma and stress. Psychosis therefore can be addressed in psychosocial and non-medical ways as well as by medication. People’s stories of living with voices can help others to cope, manage and learn about themselves.
British Psychological Society (2015) Understanding psychosis and schizophrenia*. British Psychological Society, Leicester.
Romme M and Escher S (1993) Accepting Voices. Mind, London.
Jaynes, J (1982) The Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Penguin, Harmondsworth.
Repper, J and Perkins, R (2003) Social Inclusion and Recovery. Balliere Tindall, Edinburgh
Visit the publications page of Jacqui Dillon. You will see that she has written with other people mentioned in the unit. Her body of work about hearing voices is a very useful resource for anyone wishing to read further around this topic.
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